Escultura Pallava, Kanchipuram

Escultura Pallava, Kanchipuram


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Kanchipuram en el período anterior a Pallava

los Distrito de Kanchipuram del norte de Tamil Nadu se considera la primera región del país tamil en ser arianizada. P. T. Srinivasa Iyengar cree que en el período anterior a Pallava, esta región era el puesto de avanzada más al sur de la cultura sánscrita. Cita la derivación etimológica de la palabra "Kanchipuram" y otras pruebas en apoyo de su afirmación. Sin embargo, a pesar de tales afirmaciones, se cree que Kanchipuram ha sido mencionado en la epopeya tamil Manimekhalai.

En el siglo IV d.C., Kanchipuram surgió de un pasado oscuro para convertirse en la capital del Imperio Pallava. La ciudad estaba en el apogeo de su poder durante el siglo VII d.C. cuando fue visitada por el viajero chino Hiuen Tsang.


Historia india

Estilo Aparajita. Esto es más ornamentado que se asemeja a la arquitectura Chola.

En Dalavanur se encuentran algunos templos construidos con este estilo. La nota

Un rasgo digno de algunos santuarios es que están adornados por hermosos

imágenes realistas de los reyes de Pallava y sus reinas. Todos dijeron que son

único en la historia de la arquitectura del templo.

La escultura de Pallava se debe más a la tradición budista. En general

tiene una forma más monumental y lineal, evitando así el típico

ornamentación de la escultura Deccan. Los templos independientes en

Aithole y Badami en Deccan y Kanchipuram y

Mahabalipuram en el país tamil, proporcionó una mejor base para

escultura que los templos excavados en la roca. Y la escultura de Pallava fue

monumental y lineal en forma que se asemeja a la escultura de Gupta.

Aunque la forma básica se deriva de la tradición más antigua, el final

El resultado reflejaba claramente su genio local.

Ahora, para la literatura, se ha demostrado recientemente que Bharavi y

Dandin vivía en la corte de Pallava. Kiratarjuniyam de Bharavi y Dandin

Dashakumaracharita fueron las dos obras maestras. Uno de los de Dandin

poemas fue escrito con tal habilidad que cuando se lee normalmente da la

historia del Ramayana y cuando se lee al revés, el estudio de

Mahabharata. Dandin fue el autor de un trabajo estándar sobre poética.

Hasta el siglo VIII, la influencia de Pallava fue predominante en Camboya.

El Saivismo era la forma oficial de adoración. Y el tipo de Pallava de

sikhara se encuentra en los templos de Java, Camboya y Annam.

Esta difusión de la cultura hindú demuestra que fue dinámica hasta

1000 d.C. en el sur de la India.

Así, los Pallava prestaron un servicio invaluable al país tanto

dentro y fuera, ya que eran uno de los portadores de la antorcha de hindú

civilización al sudeste asiático. Mucho más singular es su contribución a


Kanchipuram en el período anterior a Pallava

El distrito de Kanchipuram en el norte de Tamil Nadu se considera la primera región del país tamil en ser arianizada. P. T. Srinivasa Iyengar cree que en el período anterior a Pallava, esta región era el puesto de avanzada más al sur de la cultura sánscrita. Cita la derivación etimológica de la palabra "Kanchipuram" y otras pruebas en apoyo de su afirmación. Sin embargo, a pesar de tales afirmaciones, se cree que Kanchipuram fue mencionado en la epopeya tamil Manimekhalai.
En el siglo IV d.C., Kanchipuram apareció del oscuro pasado para convertirse en la capital del Imperio Pallava. La ciudad estaba en su apogeo en el siglo VII d.C. cuando visitó al viajero chino Hiuen Tsang.

1. Etimología. (Этимология)
Algunos eruditos creen que Kanchipuram podría haberse derivado de "Kanjiyur", que se menciona en los primeros poemas tamiles. Lugar kanjiyur en el país Chola y su nombre significa "lugar rodeado de árboles kanji". Kanjiyur menciona en varios textos antiguos, uno de los cuales Puṟanāṉūṟu.
Sin embargo, un experto en el grupo de lenguas dravidianas y el profesor de historia PT Srinivasa Iyengar, en su libro Historia de los tamiles desde los primeros tiempos hasta el 600 d.C., argumenta que Kanjiyur mencionado en los primeros poemas tamiles no es antiguo en absoluto, sino una ciudad diferente como un entero.
Srinivasa Iyengar dice que Kanchipuram era una palabra sánscrita y que la ciudad no tenía nombre tamil. En apoyo de su afirmación, dijo que Kanchipuram se menciona en los libros del gramático sánscrito Patanjali, que vivió entre los siglos III y II a. C. Por el contrario, la primera mención en Kanchipuram en la literatura tamil, en Perumpānāṟṟuppatai el Elogio de Ilandiraiyan, que fue escrito a finales del siglo II d.C. Aquí, sin embargo, Kanchi no se menciona en la forma sánscrita Kanchi, sino en su forma Prakrit Kacci.
Sobre la base de esta evidencia, Srinivasa Iyengar concluye que Kanchipuram podría haber sido el puesto de avanzada más al sur de la cultura sánscrita.

2. Frontera norte del país antiguo tamil. (Северную границу Древней тамильской страны)
La provincia más septentrional del antiguo país tamil era la zona de Aruva, el moderno distrito de South Arcot. Las áreas fuera de Aruva se conocían como Aruvavadadalai. El distrito de Kanchipuram no tenía un nombre específico hasta el final del período de pallava, cuando recibió el nombre de Tondaimandalam.

3.1. Historia. Kanchipuram prehistórico. (Доисторические Канчипурам)
El descubrimiento de Henry Bruce Footes de un hacha de piedra prehistórica en Pallavaram en 1863 sugiere que la región puede haber estado ocupada desde la Edad de Piedra. Los hallazgos arqueológicos de un período posterior incluso indican un próspero asentamiento de la Edad del Hierro. Los fósiles de animales y las herramientas de piedra que se encuentran en Kanchipuram, al noroeste de Chennai, pueden durar 85.000 años.

3.2. Historia. Dravida. (Волны)
La primera mención de Kanchipuram fueron los textos sánscritos de Patanjali. Las olas del reino en Mahabharatha deben enfocarse en el campo de Kanchipuram. Según una tradición, Chandraguptas Minister chanakya, Maura era un nativo de las olas. Uno de los varios nombres de Chanakyas era Dramila, la forma sánscrita de "Tamil". Kanchipuram también se conoce como Satyavrataksetra en el "Bhagavata Purana", en honor al rey Satyavrata, que gobernaba la región. Al final, todos los reyes de Kanchi antes de la época de los Pallavas, tenían el título de "Satyaputra" o "el hijo de Satyavrata".

3.3. Historia. Surgimiento de los cultos agámicos. (Подъем культы бесполый)
La región de Kanchipuram, una de las primeras regiones del país tamil, en presenciar el crecimiento de cultos asexuales. Los textos sánscritos de un siglo inmediatamente antes de la era cristiana mencionan a Kanchipuram entre las siete ciudades del templo sagrado en la India. Se construyeron varios monasterios budistas durante el emperador Ashoka Maurya. Las reliquias budistas y jainistas en la región atestiguan la presencia bastante significativa de budistas y jainistas en la ciudad en ese momento.

  • El viajero Xuanzang visitó Kanchipuram durante el gobierno de Pallava y ensalzó su gobierno benigno. La palabra Pallava significa una enredadera o rama en sánscrito. Ellos eran
  • visitó el lugar. Fue durante el reinado de la dinastía Pallava de los siglos IV al IX que Kanchipuram alcanzó su centro de atención. La ciudad sirvió
  • Los logros son los templos de una sola roca en Mahabalipuram y su capital, Kanchipuram, ahora ubicada en Tamil Nadu. Los primeros ejemplos de construcciones de Pallava
  • años hasta la desaparición de los Chalukyas alrededor de 750. Los Chalukyas y Pallavas libraron numerosas batallas y la capital de Pallava, Kanchipuram, fue ocupada
  • Nadu y vivió en la época en que la dinastía Pallava gobernaba el área. Se le considera una figura histórica del siglo VI d.C., anterior a Appar Tirunavukkarasar.
  • probablemente disfrutando de una posición subordinada bajo los Pallavas de Kanchipuram Después de ocupar estas áreas de Ananda Gotrikas, Madhav Varma II hizo Amarapura
  • originalmente Pallava Puram es una localidad residencial en el distrito de Chengalpattu, Tamil Nadu, India. Es un municipio de grado de selección ubicado al sur
  • su lucha contra los Pallavas Marchó hacia Kanchipuram pero las inscripciones de Pallava sugieren que sufrió reveses en las batallas libradas en Pariyala
  • Los logros construidos son los templos de una sola roca en Mahabalipuram y su capital, Kanchipuram, ahora ubicada en Tamil Nadu. El arte y la arquitectura de Pallava representan
  • Nākacāmi 2002 Budismo entre tamiles en Tamilakam y Īlam precoloniales: Prólogo. El período Pre - Pallava y Pallava Almqvist Wiksell. págs.287290
  • propio, lejos de las influencias dominantes de los Pandyas y Pallavas El peregrino chino Xuanzang, que pasó varios meses en Kanchipuram durante 639 640
  • primer rey de la dinastía y fue el gobernante durante la época de Pallava Rey Vishnugopa de Kanchipuram Después de perder ante el emperador Samudragupta del norte de India
  • construido por Mahindra Pallava hace 1500 años por orden de Lord Shiva. Ambos templos fueron construidos en la época de Pallava. Muchos devotos de Chennai y sus alrededores
  • sobre Pallava Nandivarman II, sino también por su benevolencia hacia la gente y los monumentos de Kanchipuram, la capital de Pallava. Él así vengó el anterior
  • por la causa de sus señores contra los Pallavas de Kanchipuram Los Chalukyas fueron reemplazados por los Rashtrakutas de Manyakheta en 753 EC como el dominante
  • Los templos de Pallava con esculturas que sobreviven en buenas condiciones son el templo de Kailasanathar, el templo de Vaikunta Perumal y otros en Kanchipuram y la cueva.
  • la palabra pandya significa país viejo en contraste con Chola que significa nuevo país, Chera significa colina y Pallava que significa rama en sánscrito. La etimologia
  • o Kanchipuram En su Avantisundari Katha, el erudito sánscrito del siglo VII y VIII, Dandin, que vivía en Tamil Nadu y estaba asociado con la corte de Pallava.
  • Note fue el primer progenitor de la dinastía Pallava. Pasó a gobernar Tondai Nadu de Kanchipuram Nainativu fue referido como Manipallavam en la antigua
  • derrotó al rey Aparajita de Pallava y extendió los territorios Chola hasta Tondaimandalam. Los centros del Reino Chola estaban en Kanchi Kanchipuram y
  • uno de los gobernantes de Pallava durante su régimen. El lugar alrededor del tanque de agua se llamaba thaangal en tamil. Como fue construido por un rey de Pallava, el lugar
  • Pulakeshin II que pudo haber muerto en batalla. Un siglo después, Chalukya Vikramaditya II marchó victoriosamente hacia Kanchipuram, la capital de Pallava, y la ocupó.
  • apareció en los sueños del Azhwar que sintió que estaba viendo a Bhatavatsala en Tirukannapuram. El templo fue construido durante el período Pallava del siglo IX.
  • en Kanchipuram Su poder aumentó durante los reinados de Mahendravarman I 571 630 y Narasimhavarman I 630 668 Los Pallavas dominaron el sur
  • siglo. Los Pallavas que hasta ahora habían sido simplemente virreyes, luego se convirtieron en gobernantes independientes de Kanchipuram y sus alrededores. Los Pallavas dominaban
  • épico Mahabaratha. Fue construido originalmente por los Pallavas en el siglo VIII por el rey Narasimhavarman I. El templo tiene iconos de cinco formas de Vishnu: Narasimha
  • 22º - más en Asia, y 40º - más en el mundo. La CMA consta de la ciudad central de Chennai y sus suburbios distribuidos en Kanchipuram Chengpattu y
  • En este suburbio se encuentra un templo de la era Pallava y una estructura patrimonial notificada por el Servicio Arqueológico de la India. Uno de los templos más antiguos
  • invasiones del territorio de Tondaimandalam y sus posteriores victorias sobre Pallava Nandivarman II y la anexión de Kanchipuram La dinastía Pallava
  • cerca de este pequeño pueblo. La carretera de Vandalur a Walajabad a través de Oragadam se conoce como la carretera Padappai que conecta Chennai y Kanchipuram, una carretera alternativa.

Kanchipuram en el período pre Pallava Visualmente.

Se considera la primera región del país tamil en ser arianizada. P. T. Srinivasa Iyengar cree que en el período pre Pallava, esta región fue la. Varita de Kanchipuram. El puerto marítimo de Pallava Mamallapuram es conocido por sus templos en cuevas, excavados en la roca a solo seis km al norte de Mamallapuram, distrito de Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu, India, la construcción original realizada durante el período Sangam antes de Pallava. Significado de la estatua en tamil Stevens Dining. Kanchipuram fue la antigua capital de los Pallavas y fue la ciudad de los 1000 de Pondicherry, desde los días de la era precristiana hasta nuestros días.

Kanchipuram - ACADEMIA DE BLOG.

Período pre Sangam. Sangam edad 700 728 Pallava Rajasimha construye el templo Kailasanatha en Kanchipuram y muchos de los templos costeros en. WBK Fotografía Templo Kailasanathan, Kanchipuram Facebook. Cheyyur No confunda esto con Cheyyar que está cerca de Kanchipuram. El ídolo del Señor pertenece al período pre pallava y fue encontrado en el estanque cercano.

El majestuoso templo de Vaikunth Perumal: Kanchipuram Parte 3.

Vea más de WBK Photography en Facebook. Iniciar sesión. ¿Olvidaste tu cuenta? o. Crear una nueva cuenta. Ahora no. Páginas relacionadas. Sesión previa a la boda. Fotógrafo. Kanchipuram - Arte, historia y arquitectura Parte 1 Blog de Aparnas. Según Thirumoorthy, el santuario es el mayor complejo de templos de ladrillo que data del período anterior a Pallava. El templo está construido sobre un cojín de aluvión. Excavación reciente del templo antiguo - Mahabalipuram parte III. Kanchipuram en el período anterior a Pallava El distrito de Kanchipuram en el norte de Tamil Nadu se considera la primera región del país tamil en ser arianizada. ¿Son los reyes Pallavas Telugu? Quora. Опубликовано: 18 июн. 2013 г. Unidad 2 Arte y arquitectura de Tamil Nadu Materiales gratuitos de TNPSC. En boga antes de una fase más beatífica del culto del siglo XIII a la que se suele recurrir Explorar la presencia de Nataraja en el templo del período Pallava en Kanchipuram confirma que Narasimhavarman Pallavan II AD 695 728 era a.

Kanchipuram en la pedia del período pre Pallava.

Según A.J.V. var ezouid 1 El período Pre Pallava y Pallava, Page Kanchipuram es una de las ciudades más antiguas del sur de la India, y fue una ciudad de. Cómo pronunciar Kanchipuram HowT. Frases que contienen la palabra kanchipuram: estación Kanchipuram taluk Kanchipuram Distrito Kanchipuram Silk Kanchipuram en el período pre Pallava. Serie Kanchi - Una belleza Pallava escondida… - Viajero. Kanchipuram en el período anterior a Pallava. El distrito de Kanchipuram en el norte de Tamil Nadu se considera la primera región del país tamil en ser arianizada.

Dinastía Pallava Proyecto Gutenberg Autoedición eBooks Leídos.

Construcción del siglo VII por el rey pallava Rajasimhan. El templo Vaigundaperumal en Kanchipuram, también fue construido en el mismo período. Los templos anteriores se construyeron con madera o se excavaron en paredes rocosas en cuevas o rocas. Período Sangam Templo Murugan desenterrado en Mahabalipuram. Продолжительность: 3:46. P. T. Srinivasa Iyengar Unionpedia, el mapa conceptual. Vea más de WBK Photography en Facebook. Iniciar sesión. ¿Olvidaste tu cuenta? o. Crear una nueva cuenta. Ahora no. Páginas relacionadas. Sesión previa a la boda. Fotógrafo. Следующая Войти Настройки.

Historia de la India Parte 36: LA DINASTÍA DEL PALLAVA Sanu Kainikara.

Los Pallavas, que reinaron desde el 275 hasta el 897 d. C., eran Telugus. Andhra y luego se extendió hasta kanchipuram del actual Tamilnadu. ¿Cuál es la historia de los reinos telugu y la gente de la India desde los tiempos prehistóricos hasta el siglo XX? ¿Telugu nació en kannada o nació en el mismo período? Archivo: Thanjavur media Commons. Muchos templos en Kanchi, como también se conoce, se remontan a la era Pallava, pero muchos también son anteriores a eso. Mientras que el Ekambareswar y.

Opinión sobre el templo Kailasanatha, Kanchipuram, India TripAdvisor.

La importancia del período Pallava es que es la culminación de lo que se conocía en Los Pallavas, que gobernaron antes de principios del siglo VII. Pallavas Sur de la India Historia BrainKart. Haga clic en una fecha y hora para ver el archivo tal como apareció en ese momento. Tondaiman Kanchipuram en el período pre Pallava Ramnad estate Tamil. Templo Kanchipuram Período Pallava VII siglo IX. Los animales nocturnos, el sector animal prehistórico, el aviario y el reptil son algunos. Tirupporur es un antiguo templo que data del período Pallava y es uno de ellos.

Kadiyalur Uruttirangannanar Mili, el mejor lector de pedia.

No existe un consenso académico sobre el origen de los Pallavas. Kanchipuram fue un importante centro comercial en el período Pallava. La influencia de la cultura aria en el sur fue la posición preeminente dada a los brahmanes. Templo Subrahmanya, Biblioteca mundial de libros electrónicos de Saluvankuppam. Es en este período que el estilo Pallava alcanzó plenamente su individualidad. Los Chalukyas y los Rashtrakutas continuaron la tradición preexistente del arte tallado en roca. son Mamallapuram y Kanchipuram donde los artistas de Pallava deliberadamente y. Kanchi Silks South India Jainism Scribd. Se considera que el distrito de North Tamil Nadu es la primera región del país tamil en ser arianizada. P. T. Srinivasa Iyengar cree que en el. ELBON Conferences and Events Pvt Ltd. 1 La era Pallava es testigo de una transición del corte de roca a Los mejores ejemplos de este período son el Templo Shore en Mahabalipuram y el Kanchi asumiendo o manejando muchos de los riesgos de la fase previa al desarrollo como.

Tondaimandalam Sinónimos de tondaimandalam Antónimos de.

Kanchipuram ha sido gobernado por los Pallavas, los Cholas medievales, los Cholas posteriores, los Pandyas posteriores, la Sede también: Kanchipuram en el período pre Pallava. El gran alivio en el artículo de Mamallapuram Khan Academy. El magnífico templo antiguo de Vishnu de la rica herencia de Pallava es un espectáculo para la vista. y el requisito de un baño ritual antes del darshan del Señor. Alwar y las inscripciones en placa de cobre de la era Pallava.

Análisis histórico de los edificios artísticos y arquitectónicos de Tamil Nadu.

Kanchipuram a veces simplemente llamado Kanchi o Kanci es una ciudad antigua. La ciudad fue en un momento la capital de los Pallavas del siglo IV al IX EC. confiabilidad y adherencia a los estándares académicos antes de la publicación. Pallava Period Fotografías e imágenes en alta resolución. Esta enigmática obra de arte fue creada durante la dinastía Pallava del siglo III IX, EC, la capital cercana en Kanchipuram mientras utilizaba Mamallapuram como ciudad portuaria. La regla de Pallava alcanzó su punto máximo en los siglos VII y VIII EC. cursos listos Matemáticas: escuela secundaria y. Restos del templo Subramanya del período Sangam excavados en. Pandyan, Jeeva Samadhi, Budismo Tamil, Kanchipuram en el período anterior a Pallava, Henry Alfred Krishnapillai. Velirs, Vedanayagam Sastriar, historia tamil de. Historia de la dinastía Pallava Dinastías de la antigua India YouTube. Karnata Drāvi∂a, antes de la desaparición del siglo XIII o XIV en la cercana capital de Pallava en Kanchipuram, el Kailāsanātha. Estos templos son más representativos del período que Chidambaram solo. Reinos del sur de la India Pallavas, Chalukyas y Rashtrakutas, Cholas. Mahabalipuram es un tesoro de la era Pallava del siglo VII d.C. La evidencia de una construcción que se remonta a un período anterior a los Pallava.

Libros LLC ASQ Orange Empire.

, esta región fue el puesto de avanzada más al sur de la cultura sánscrita. Mapa de la dinastía Pallava, mapas del imperio Pallava de la India. ¿Dónde entra kanchipuram en esto ya que estamos hablando del período pre pallava y ese tiempo muestra que kanchi ni siquiera era la ciudad más grande de. Raíces védicas de la cultura tamil temprana CiteSeerX. Véase también: Kanchipuram en el período anterior a Pallava. recinto de un templo con esculturas a ambos lados. Esculturas dentro del templo Kanchipuram Kailasanathar - el. Revisión de la revista de investigación: International Monthly Scholarly. Capital tamil de Pallavas Kanchi Nombra el popular centro de aprendizaje en Kanchi. La inscripción contiene una nota sobre la notación de la música vocal del período Pallava ?. MATERIALES DE ESTUDIO DE PALLAVAS UPSC. Durante el reinado de la dinastía Pallava, entre el siglo III d.C. y el VII, y otros artefactos excavados en esta región también indican que un comercio preexistente de la era común puede ser Mahabalipuram o Kanchipuram.

Frases con kanchipuram RhymeZone.

Aunque hoy es sólo un destino de peregrinos y un depósito de los principales monumentos arquitectónicos, en la antigüedad ocupó un lugar más preeminente en la historia. Destino Tamil Nadu: lugares para ver Mamallapuram Indtravel. Chola Nadu era una región del estado de Tamil Nadu en el sur de la India. Abarca Kanchipuram en el período anterior a Pallava. El Kanchipuram. Kanchipuram pedia, la enciclopedia libre. Teorías del origen de los Pallavas: Historia pre Pallava de Kanchipura. formar Pahlava? en relación con los Pallavas de Kanchi en cualquier registro de su tiempo. SINOPSIS SEGURA: 20 DE NOVIEMBRE DE 2018 INSIGHTSIAS. El templo es el santuario más antiguo de Tamil Nadus a Murugan. También se cree que es uno de los dos únicos templos anteriores a Pallava que se han descubierto en el estado, siendo el otro el.


Dinastía Pallavas | Lista de gobernantes Pallavas de Kanchipuram y sus contribuciones

La dinastía Pallava fue una de las dinastías gobernantes del sur de la India que ganó prominencia después del eclipse de la dinastía Satavahanas, a quienes los Pallavas sirvieron como feudatarios. Fueron patrocinio de la arquitectura, siendo el mejor ejemplo el Templo Shore, declarado Patrimonio de la Humanidad por la UNESCO en Mahabalipuram. Desarrollaron el guión de Pallava del que finalmente descendió Grantha que dio lugar a varios otros guiones del sudeste asiático. Aquí damos la lista de Gobernantes Pallavas de Kanchipuram y sus contribuciones para la conciencia general.

Lista de gobernantes Pallavas de Kanchipuram y sus contribuciones

Nombre de los gobernantes Pallavas de Kanchipuram

Contribución (es)

2. Fue el primer monarca Pallava que extendió su autoridad más allá de Kanchipuram (Kanchi) en el sur.

3. Un drama escrito por su hijo Mahendravarman I en el que fue retratado como un gran conquistador en Mattavilasa Prahasana (juerga de borrachos).

1. Era el hijo de Simhavishnu, quien derrotó a los Kalabhras y restableció el reino de Pallava.

2. La literatura tamil floreció bajo su gobierno, con el aumento de la popularidad de Tevaram escrito por Appar y Sambandhar.

3. Fue el autor de la obra Mattavilasa Prahasana y de otra obra llamada Bhagavadajjuka.

4. Él construyó templo cueva de cinco celdas en Pallavaram, el Templo de Kokarneswarar, y Thirukokarnam de Pudukottai, Tamil Nadu.

5. Inicialmente fue un patrón de la fe Jain pero bajo la influencia de la Saiva Saint Appar patrocinado la fe Saiva.

1. También fue conocido como Mamallan (gran luchador), y Mamallapuram (Mahabalipuram) recibió su nombre.

2. Compartió el amor por el arte de su padre Mahendravarman I y completó el trabajo iniciado por Mahendravarman en Mamallapuram.

3. Durante su reinado, el viajero chino Hiuen Tsang visitó Kanchipuram en 640 d.C.

1. Era el hijo de Narasimhavarman I, quien gobernó desde 630-668 DC.

2. Fue sucedido por su hijo Paramesvaravarman I.

1. Fue un gobernante eficiente y capaz, conocido por sus hazañas militares, su amor por la poesía y su devoción a Siva, a quien erigió muchos templos.

2. Fue sucedido por su hijo Narasimhavarman II, también llamado Rajasimha en 695 DC.

1. Fue uno de los más grandes gobernantes de Pallavas como Mahendravarman I y Narasimhavarman I.

2. Construyó el Templo Shore, los Templos Isvara y Mukunda en Mahabalipuram, el Templo Panamalai en South Arcot, además del Templo Kailasanathar y los Templos Vaikuntha-Perumal en Kanchipuram.

3. Fue un gran devoto de Shiva y construyó el Templo Kailasanathar en Kanchipuram.

1. Gobernó desde el 728 hasta el 731.

2. Fue asesinado por el rey Chalukya Vikramaditya II.

3. Fue el último gobernante de la línea Simhavishnu de Pallavas.

1. Era el gobernante de Pallava, pero no provenía del linaje de la familia Simhavishnu.

2. Gobernó desde el año 720 hasta el 796 d. C.

3. Él construyó el Templo Vaikuntha-Perumal.

4. Fue un intelectual con aptitudes en muchas artes como la escritura, la poesía, la música y la filosofía.

5. Se le atribuye el aumento de la adoración a la danza dramatizada en el templo como Kutiyattam y chakyar koothu con muchas obras propias.

1. Era hijo de Nandivarman II.

1. Era hijo de Dantivarman y nieto de Nandivarman II.

2. Fue un poderoso monarca que intentó revertir el declive que se inició en el reinado de su padre.

3. Tenía una poderosa armada y mantenía contactos comerciales con Siam y Malaya.

1. Fue el último gobernante de la dinastía Pallavas.

2. El último uso conocido de la tradición estilística fue encargado por él.

3. Fue asesinado por Aditya I (gobernante de Chola) en 897 d. C. en el campo de batalla.

Los Pallavas fueron los contemporáneos de Chalukyas. La literatura Sangam, es decir, Manimekalai, que atribuye el origen del primer Rey Pallava a un enlace entre las hijas de un rey Naga de Manipallava llamado Pilli Valai (Pilivalai) con un rey Chola. En lo anterior, la lista de Gobernantes Pallavas de Kanchipuram y sus contribuciones mejorarán el conocimiento general de los lectores.


Templo de Kailasanathar: el templo más antiguo de Shiva en Kanchipuram

El templo Kailasanathar en Kanchipuram fue el tercer gran templo que visité después del templo Kanchi Kamakshi y el templo Ekambareswar. Los dos templos anteriores estaban tan llenos de Shakti o la energía devocional que todavía estaba envuelto en eso cuando mi auto se detuvo frente al templo Kailasnathar. Una serie de Murtis de bronce apilados en una carretilla frente al templo me dieron la bienvenida.

Ahora, este es un templo que los eruditos adoran. Han escrito mucho sobre este templo, interpretando cada escultura de sus paredes. Han construido tanta aura a su alrededor que estaba muy emocionado de visitar este templo. Sin embargo, me pareció un templo bastante pequeño e independiente en comparación con los otros templos. Yo era el único visitante en una mañana de septiembre en el templo. Lo tenía todo para mí.

Es increíblemente hermoso e impresionante, por decir lo menos. Los cielos azules claros agregaron su propio brillo a las paredes esculpidas.

Cuevas o santuarios de meditación

Había leído e incluso visto imágenes de las cuevas de meditación en el templo Kailasnathar en Kanchipuram. Sin embargo, no esperaba una fila de 8 de ellos frente al templo, casi como una pantalla para proteger el templo. De hecho, estas 8 cuevas frente al templo principal son 8 santuarios con un Shivalinga instalado en ellos.

La puerta principal a través del Gopuram se encuentra asimétricamente entre estos santuarios rupestres, 2 en un lado y seis en el otro. La arquitectura es única, no es de extrañar que los estudiantes de arquitectura e historia del arte la encuentren intrigante. Los pilares redondos con fondo tallado en forma de leones animales míticos son el sello característico de la dinastía Pallava.

Alrededor del muro del templo llamado Prakara, que rodea el templo, hay pequeñas cuevas de meditación. ¿O son realmente los santuarios más pequeños que rodean al santuario principal? Son lo suficientemente grandes como para permitir que una sola persona se siente. No hay espacio para moverse o mirar alrededor. Las paredes que dan a las cuevas de meditación están esculpidas y pintadas en su mayoría con esculturas de Shiva-Parvati con esculturas ocasionales de Ganesha. Las esculturas han logrado mantenerse en alguna forma. Las pinturas solo se pueden imaginar a partir de lo que queda en algunas de ellas.

Hay 50 de ellos alrededor del templo principal. Uno solo puede preguntarse cuál era su propósito y cómo se veía el templo cuando todos eran adorados.

Templo principal

Entré al templo después de pasar los 8 santuarios iniciales. Me encontré de pie frente a una puerta de madera azul con dos esculturas gigantes de Shiva a cada lado. Destacan tanto por su tamaño como por su color blanco. Están uno frente al otro pero mirando para otro lado. A sus pies están de nuevo los leones Pallava que ves por todas partes en Kanchipuram. El templo Shikhara todavía no era visible.

Uno camina naturalmente hacia la izquierda, como si estuviera listo para hacer el parikrama o circunvalación. Caminé con una serie de cuevas de meditación a mi izquierda, cada una de las cuales despertó mi curiosidad. Después de unos pocos pasos, el templo principal y su adorable Shikhara hicieron acto de presencia. Mis ojos y mis sentidos lucharon entre los dos lados de los pasillos. Por un lado estaba esta pieza arquitectónica única, las cuevas de piedra más pequeñas posibles, por el otro otro hermoso ejemplo de la arquitectura de Pallava. Las esculturas en cada parte visible de las paredes son encantadoras y cautivadoras.

Mandapa con pilares

Un mandapa con pilares se encuentra frente al templo principal. Está cerrado a partir de ahora. Este fue el mandapa independiente del templo que más tarde se unió al templo principal mediante la construcción de un Ardh-Mandapa entre ellos. Cuando te quedas ahí, puedes sentir cierta desproporcionalidad. Traté de visualizar cómo se habría visto el templo sin esas paredes lisas que conectan el mandapa y el santuario. La respuesta es mucho más equilibrada y proporcionada.

Poco más adelante, hay una entrada lateral al templo. Un sacerdote solitario administra el templo. Comparado con el ejército de sacerdotes que había visto en el Templo Ekambareshwar que estaban ocupados corriendo, parecía estar esperando devotos. Dicho esto, no significa que haya sido educado o que tenga menos aires sobre su condición de sacerdote.

Santuario

Dentro del santuario, el templo es bastante más sencillo. Hay un Shivalinga de 16 caras en granito negro. Detrás de Shivalinga hay una imagen de Somaskanda que es Shiva, Uma con Skanda o Kartik. Esto es algo que solo he visto en los templos de Kanchipuram.

Un camino de parikrama muy estrecho rodea el santuario. Es tan estrecho que no me atreví a dar la vuelta, sintiéndome claustrofóbico. Me pregunto cuál fue la razón para construir un camino circunvalador tan estrecho. De hecho, ni siquiera es un camino recto, debes subir un tramo de escaleras y luego arrastrarte por el otro lado para hacer el parikrama y repetir lo mismo en la salida. No me sentía cómodo por alguna razón, así que lo salté. El sacerdote sugirió que lo hiciera en sentido contrario a las agujas del reloj, lo cual fue un poco más simple, pero el hindú que hay en mí no estuvo de acuerdo esta vez.

Más tarde leí que tiene un significado filosófico como pasar por un renacimiento. No estoy seguro. Suena más como una ruta de escape estratégica que la mayoría de los reyes construirían por sí mismos.

Shikhara piramidal

Este templo tiene un Shikhara piramidal, con figuras esculpidas en cada uno de ellos. Parece que las placas de piedra están delicadamente equilibradas entre sí mientras sostienen las historias que deben contar. En la parte superior hay un acabado esférico en forma de cúpula, casi como una cereza en el pastel. Los nandis se sientan en las cuatro direcciones en la capa justo debajo de la parte superior.

No importa dónde se encuentre, no puede perderse la serie de pilares con base de león. Si te paras en la esquina que da al templo, sentirás que estás en el santuario de los leones.

Puedes ver todas las formas imaginables de Shiva en las paredes. Hay un santuario detrás de la pared trasera del templo principal dedicado a Kartikeyan. Aquí puedes ver su Vigraha en piedra negra. Hay una hermosa escultura de Durga y Saptamatrikas.

El complejo del templo Kailasanathar

Este templo es un templo único independiente sin ningún otro templo en su complejo. Como saben, en Kanchipuram los templos de Shiva no tienen el templo de Devi en su interior, como es la norma en los templos de Shiva en toda la India. En Kanchipuram, Devi vive solo en su propia morada.

Vi algunas figuras de Nandi detrás de la pared trasera del templo frente a las cuevas de meditación. Supongo que son para los Shiva Vigrahas en las cuevas.

Nandi Mandap

El principal Nandi Mandap está a unos 100 metros de distancia a través de los extensos prados del templo. El Nandi es de tamaño mediano y está orientado hacia el santuario, aunque hay distancias y múltiples capas de piedra que separan al Linga y al Nandi. Cuatro pilares independientes se colocan en el mandap, pero todo parece remendado. I wonder if the Nandi Mandap was always located so far or it has been moved away during some conservation effort.

When you walk in the lawns away from the temple, that is when you see the lions coming out of the outer wall at the regular intervals. I wonder if they were also free-standing pillars once and got plastered together later on. The Shikharas of smaller shrines or meditation caves is visible from the outside like a miniature version of the bigger one. Nandis sit in between them on the wall, as they do in every Shiva temple in Kanchipuram.

A tank is located diagonally across the temple at the other end of the lawns.

History and Architecture of Kailasnathar Temple, Kanchipuram

The temple in stone dates back to late 7th CE and is attributed to Pallava king Narsimhavarman II. The façade that seems to be built later was added by his son Mahendravarman II. It is believed that Rajaraja Chola who built the mighty Brihdeeswara temple in Thanjavur, was inspired by this temple.

The base of the temple is made in hard granite stone while most of the superstructure is in softer sandstone. The main shrine is almost rectangular as is its pyramidical shikhara. The meditation caves or the shrines surrounding the temple are a unique feature of this temple that I am yet to see elsewhere. They do remind me of the meditation caves at 84 Kutiya in Rishikesh.

It is probably a royal temple, built by the royal family, probably for their private Sadhna. It is now under ASI and they maintain this temple. The absence of devotees makes it like a relic of the past even though it is pretty much a practicing and living temple. I am told it is full of people on Shivratri as most Shiva Temples are.

What makes this important is the fact that this may be the first standalone stone temple in the region. Temples earlier to this were built by carving out the rocks in situ or what we know as cave temples. Many of these can be seen at Mahabalipuram nearby.


Pallava art and architecture

Pallava art and architecture represent an early stage of Dravidian art and architecture which blossomed to its fullest extent under the Chola Dynasty. The first stone and mortar temples of South India were constructed during Pallava rule and were based on earlier brick and timber prototypes. [1] [2] [3]

Starting with rock cut temples, built between 695AD and 722AD, and archaeological excavations dated to the 6th century and earlier. [4] [5] Pallava sculptors later graduated to free-standing structural shrines which inspired Chola dynasty's temples of a later age. Some of the best examples of Pallava art and architecture are the Kailasanathar Temple at Kanchipuram, the Shore Temple and the Pancha Rathas of Mahabalipuram. Akshara was the greatest sculptor of their time. [6] [7] [8]

Pallava architecture was sub-divided into two phases: the rock cut phase and the structural phase. The rock cut phase lasted from the 610 AD to 668 AD and consisted of two groups of monuments, the Mahendra group and the Mamalla group. The Mahendra group is the name given to monuments constructed during the reign of Mahendravarman I (610 AD- 630 AD). The monuments of this group are invariably pillared halls hewn out of mountain faces. These pillared halls or mandapas follow the prototype of Jain temples of the period. The best examples of Mahendra group of monuments are the cave temples at Mandagapattu, Pallavaram and Mamandur.

The second group of rock cut monuments belong to the Mamalla group in 630 to 668 AD. During this period free-standing monolithic shrines called rathas (chariots) were constructed alongside pillared halls. Some of the best examples of this style are the Pancha Rathas and Arjuna's Penance at Mahabalipuram.

The second phase of Pallava architecture is the structural phase when free-standing shrines were constructed with stone and mortar brought in for the purpose. Monuments of this phase are of two groups - the Rajasimha group (690 to 800 AD) and the Nandivarman group (800 to 900 AD). [9] The Rajasimha group encompasses the early structural temples of the Pallavas when a lot of experimentation was carried out. The best examples of this period are the Shore Temple at Mahabalipuram and the Kanchi Kailasanathar Temple at Kanchipuram both constructed by Narasimhavarman II who was known as Rajasimha. The best example of the Nandivarman group of monuments is the Vaikunta Perumal Temple at Kanchipuram. During this period, Pallava architecture attained full maturity and provided the models upon which the massive Brihadeeswarar Temple of the Cholas at Thanjavur and Gangaikonda Cholapuram and various other architectural works of note were constructed.


Pallavas, Chalukyas and Rashtrakutas

After the decline of the Sangam Age in the Tamil country, the Kalabhra rule lasted for about 250 years. Thereafter, the Pallavas established their kingdom in Tondaimandalam with its capital at Kanchipuram. Their rule continued till Tondaimandalam was captured and annexed by the Imperial Cholas in the beginning of the tenth century A.D.

Pallavas

There are different views on the origin of the Pallavas. They were equated with the Parthians, the foreigners who ruled western India. Another view was that the Pallavas were a branch of the Brahmin royal dynasty of the Vakatakas of the Deccan. The third view relates the Pallavas with the descendents of the Chola prince and a Naga princess whose native was the island of Manipallavam. But these theories on the origin of the Pallavas were not supported by adequate evidence. Therefore, the view that the Pallavas were the natives of Tondaimandalam itself was widely accepted by scholars. They are also identical with the Pulindas mentioned in the inscriptions of Asoka. When Tondaimandalam was conquered by the Satavahanas, the Pallavas became their feudatories. After the fall of the Satavahanas in the third century A.D., they became independent. The Pallavas issued their earlier inscriptions in Prakrit and Sanskrit because of their Satavahana connections, and also patronized Brahmanism.

Political History

The early Pallava rulers from 250 A.D. to 350 A.D. issued their charters in Prakrit. Important among them were Sivaskandavarman and Vijayaskandavarman. The second line of Pallava rulers who ruled between 350 A.D. and 550 A.D. issued their charters in Sanskrit. The most important ruler of this line was Vishnugopa who was defeated by Samudragupta during his South Indian expedition. The rulers of the third line who ruled from 575 A.D. to their ultimate fall in the ninth century issued their charters both in Sanskrit and Tamil. Simhavishnu was the first ruler of this line. He destroyed the Kalabhras and firmly established the Pallava rule in Tondaimandalam. He also defeated the Cholas and extended the Pallava territory up to the river Kaveri. Other great Pallava rulers of this line were Mahendravarman I, Narasimhavarman I, and Narasimhavarman II.

Mahendravarman I (600 – 630 A.D.)

The long-drawn Pallava – Chalukya Conflict began during his period. Pulakesin II marched against the Pallavas and captured the northern part of their kingdom. Although a Pallava inscription refers to the victory of Mahendravarman I at Pullalur, he was not able to recover the lost territory.

Mahendravarman I was a follower of Jainism in the early part of his career. He was converted to Shaivism by the influence of the Saiva saint, Thirunavukkarasar alias Appar. He built a Shiva temple at Tiruvadi. He assumed a number of titles like Gunabhara, Satyasandha, Chattakari (builder of temples) Chitrakarapuli, Vichitrachitta and Mattavilasa. He was a great builder of cave temples. The Mandagappattu inscription hails him as Vichitrachitta who constructed a temple for Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva without the use of bricks, timber, metal and mortar. His rock-cut temples are found in a number of places like Vallam, Mahendravadi, Dalavanur, Pallavaram, Mandagapattu and Tiruchirappalli. He had also authored the Sanskrit work Mattavilasa Prahasanam. His title Chitrakarapuli reveals his talents in painting. He is also regarded as an expert in music. The music inscription at Kudumianmalai is ascribed to him.

Narasimhavarman I (630-668 A.D.)

Narasimhavarman I was also known as Mamalla, which means ‘great wrestler’. He wanted to avenge the defeat of his father at the hands of Chalukya ruler Pulakesin II. His victory over Pulakesin II in the Battle of Manimangalam near Kanchi is mentioned in Kuram copper plates. The Pallava army under General Paranjothi pursued the retreating Chalukya army, entered Chalukya territory, captured and destroyed the capital city of Vatapi. Narasimhavarman I assumed the title ‘Vatapikonda’. He regained the lost territory. Another notable achievement of Narasimhavarman I was his naval expedition to Sri Lanka. He restored the throne to his friend and Sri Lankan prince Rama Varma. During his reign, Hiuen Tsang visited the Pallava capital Kanchipuram. His description of Kanchi is vivid. He calls it a big and beautiful city, six miles in circumference. It had 100 Buddhist monasteries in which about 10,000 Buddhist monks lived. According to his account the people of Kanchi esteemed great learning and the Ghatika at Kanchi served as a great centre of learning. Narasimhavarman I was the founder of Mamallapuram and the monolithic rathas were erected during his reign.

Narasimhavarman II or Rajasimha (695 -722 A.D.)

Narasimhavarman I was succeeded by Mahendravarman II and Parameswara Varman I and the Pallava – Chalukya conflict continued during their reign. Thereafter, Narasimhavarman II became the ruler of the Pallava kingdom. He was also known as Rajasimha. His regime was peaceful and he evinced more interest in developing the art and architecture. The Shore temple at Mamallapuram and the Kailasanatha temple at Kanchipuram were built in this period. He was also a great patron of art and letters. The famous Sanskrit scholar Dandin is said to have adorned his court. He sent embassies to China and the maritime trade flourished during his reign. Rajasimha assumed titles like Shankara Bhakta, Vadhyavidyadhara and Agamapriya. He was succeeded by Parameswaravarman II and Nandivarman II. The Pallava rule lasted till the end of the ninth century A.D. The Chola king Aditya I defeated the last Pallava ruler Aparajita and seized the Kanchi region. With this, the rule of the Pallava dynasty came to an end.

Administration of the Pallavas

The Pallavas had a well-organized administrative system. The Pallava state was divided into Kottams. The Kottam was administered by officers appointed by the king. The king was at the centre of administration in which he was assisted by able ministers. He was the fountain of justice. He maintained a well-trained army. He provided land-grants to the temples known as Devadhana and also to the Brahmans known as Brahmadeya. It was also the responsibility of the central government to provide irrigation facilities to the lands. A number of irrigation tanks were dug by the Pallava kings. The irrigation tanks at Mahendravadi and Mamandoor were dug during the reign of Mahendravarman I. Detailed information on the tax system could also be traced from the Pallava inscriptions. Land tax was the primary source of the government revenue. The Brahmadeya and Devadhana lands were exempted from tax. Traders and artisans such as carpenters, goldsmiths, washer-men, oil-pressers and weavers paid taxes to the government. The Pallava inscriptions throw much light on the village assemblies called sabhas and their committees. They maintained records of all village lands, looked after local affairs and managed temples.

Society under the Pallavas

The Tamil society witnessed a great change during the Pallava period. The caste system became rigid. The Brahmins occupied a high place in the society. They were given land-grants by the kings and nobles. They were also given the responsibility of looking after the temples. The Pallava period also witnessed the rise of Saivism and Vaishnavism and also the decline of Buddhism and Jainism. The Saiva Nayanmars and the Vaishnava Alwars contributed to the growth of Saivism and Vaishnavism. This is known as the Bhakti Movement. They composed their hymns in the Tamil language. These hymns revealed the importance of devotion or Bakthi. The construction of temples by the Pallava kings paved the way for the spread of these two religions.

Education and Literature

The Pallavas were great patrons of learning. Their capital Kanchi was an ancient centre of learning. The Ghatika at Kanchi was popular and it attracted students from all parts of India and abroad. The founder of the Kadamba dynasty, Mayurasarman studied Vedas at Kanchi. Dinganaga, a Buddhist writer, came to study at Kanchi. Dharmapala, who later became the Head of the Nalanda University, belonged to Kanchi. Bharavi, the great Sanskrit scholar lived in the time of Simhavishnu. Dandin, another Sanskrit writer, adorned the court of Narasimhavarman II. Mahendravaraman I composed the Sanskrit play Mattavilasa Prahasana. Tamil literature had also developed. The Nayanmars and Alwars composed religious hymns in Tamil. The Devaram composed by Nayanmars and the Nalayradivyaprabandam composed by Alwars represent the religious literature of the Pallava period. Perundevanar was patronized by Nandivarman II and he translated the Mahabharata as Bharathavenba in Tamil. Nandikkalambagam was another important work but the name of the author of this work is not known. Music and dance also developed during this period.

Pallava Art and Architecture

It was a great age of temple building. The Pallavas introduced the art of excavating temples from the rock. In fact, the Dravidian style of temple architecture began with the Pallava rule. It was a gradual evolution starting from the cave temples to monolithic rathas and culminated in structural temples. The development of temple architecture under the Pallavas can be seen in four stages.

Mahendravarman I introduced the rock-cut temples. This style of Pallava temples are seen at places like Mandagappattu, Mahendravadi, Mamandur, Dalavanur, Tiruchirappalli, Vallam, Siyamangalam and Tirukalukkunram.

The second stage of Pallava architecture is represented by the monolithic rathas and Mandapas found at Mamallapuram. Narasimhavarman I took the credit for these wonderful architectural monuments. The five rathas, popularly called as the Panchapanadava rathas, signifies five different styles of temple architecture. The mandapas contain beautiful sculptures on its walls. The most popular of these mandapas are Mahishasuramardhini Mandapa, Tirumurthi Mandapam and Varaha Madapam.

In the next stage, Rajasimha introduced the structural temples. These temples were built by using the soft sand rocks. The Kailasanatha temple at Kanchi and the Shore temple at Mamallapuram remain the finest examples of the early structural temples of the Pallavas. The Kailasanatha temple at Kanchi is the greatest architectural masterpiece of the Pallava art. The last stage of the Pallava art is also represented by structural temples built by the later Pallavas. The Vaikundaperumal temple, Muktheeswara temple and Matagenswara temples at Kanchipuram belong to this stage of architecture. The Pallavas had also contributed to the development of sculpture. Apart from the sculptures found in the temples, the ‘Open Art Gallery’ at Mamallapuram remains an important monument bearing the sculptural beauty of this period. The Descent of the Ganges or the Penance of Arjuna is called a fresco painting in stone. The minute details as well as the theme of these sculptures such as the figures of lice-picking monkey, elephants of huge size and the figure of the ‘ascetic cat’ standing erect remain the proof for the talent of the sculptor.

Fine Arts

Music, dance and painting had also developed under the patronage of the Pallavas. The Mamandur inscription contains a note on the notation of vocal music. The Kudumianmalai inscription referred to musical notes and instruments. The Alwars and Nayanmars composed their hymns in various musical notes. Dance and drama also developed during this period. The sculptures of this period depict many dancing postures. The Sittannavasal paintings belonged to this period. The commentary called Dakshinachitra was compiled during the reign of Mahendravarman I, who had the title Chittirakkarapuli. Besides the Pallavas, the Western Chalukyas and the Rashtrakutas in the Deccan constitute important political forces. Both these kingdoms had their rivals in the far south, namely the Pallavas and later the Cholas. Their period has also been important in the history of India for their cultural contributions.

Chalukyas (543 – 755 A.D.)

The Western Chalukyas ruled over an extensive area in the Deccan for about two centuries after which the Rashtrakutas become powerful. The family of Western Chalukyas had its offshoots like the Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi and the Chalukyas of Kalyani. Pulakesin I was the founder of the Chalukya dynasty. He established a small kingdom with Vatapi or Badami as its capital.

Pulakesin II (608-642 A.D.)

The most important ruler of this dynasty was Pulakesin II. The Aihole inscription issued by him gives the details of his reign. He fought with the Kadambas of Banavasi and the Gangas of Mysore and established his suzerainty. Durvinita, the Ganga ruler accepted his overlordship and even gave his daughter in marriage to Pulakesin II. Another notable achievement of Pulakesin II was the defeat of Harshavardhana on the banks of the river Narmada. He put a check to the ambition of Harsha to conquer the south. In his first expedition against the Pallavas, Pulakesin II emerged victorious. But he suffered a humiliating defeat at the hands of Narasimhavarman I near Kanchi. Subsequently, the Chalukya capital Vatapi was captured and destroyed by the Pallavas. The most important event in the reign of Pulakesin II was the visit of Hiuen Tsang to his kingdom. The successor of Pulakesin II was Vikramaditya. He once again consolidated the Chalukya kingdom and plundered the Pallava capital, Kanchi. Thus, he had avenged his father’s defeat and death at the hands of the Pallavas. Kirtivarman II was the last of the rulers of the Chalukyas. He was defeated by Dantidurga, the founder of the Rashtrakutas dynasty. Administration and Social Life under the Chalukyas The Chalukya administration was highly centralized unlike that of the Pallavas and the Cholas. Village autonomy was absent under the Chalukyas. The Chalukyas had a great maritime power. Pulakesin II had 100 ships in his navy. They also had a small standing army. The Badami Chalukyas were Brahmanical Hindus but they gave respect to other religions. Importance was given to Vedic rites and rituals. The founder of the dynasty Pulakesin I performed the asvamedha sacrifice. A number of temples in honour of Vishnu, Siva and other gods were also built during this period. Hiuen Tsang mentioned the decline of Buddhism in western Deccan. But Jainism was steadily on the path of progress in this region. Ravikirti, the court poet of Pulakesin II who composed the Aihole inscription was a Jain.

Art and Architecture

The Chalukyas were great patrons of art. They developed the vesara style in the building of structural temples. However, the vesara style reached its culmination only under the Rashtrakutas and the Hoysalas. The structural temples of the Chalukyas exist at Aihole, Badami and Pattadakal. Cave temple architecture was also famous under the Chalukyas. Their cave temples are found in Ajanta, Ellora and Nasik. The best specimens of Chalukya paintings can be seen in the Badami cave temple and in the Ajanta caves. The reception given to a Persian embassy by Pulakesin II is depicted in a painting at Ajantha. The Chalukya temples may be divided into two stages. The first stage is represented by the temples at Aihole and Badami. Among the seventy temples found at Aihole, four are important.

  1. Ladh Khan temple is a low, flat-roofed structure consisting of a pillared hall.
  2. Durga temple resembles a Buddha Chaitya.
  3. Huchimalligudi temple.
  4. The Jain temple at Meguti.

Among the temples at Badami, the Muktheeswara temple and the Melagutti Sivalaya are notable for their architectural beauty. A group of four rock-cut temples at Badami are marked by high workmanship. The walls and pillared halls are adorned by beautiful images of gods and human beings.

The second stage is represented by the temples at Pattadakal. There are ten temples here, four in the northern style and the remaining six in the Dravidian style. The Papanatha temple is the most notable in the northern style. The Sangamesvara temple and the Virupaksha temple are famous for their Dravidian style. The Virupaksha temple is built on the model of the Kailasanatha temple at Kanchipuram. It was built by one of the queens of Vikramaditya II. Sculptors brought from Kanchi were employed in its construction.

Rashtrakutas (755 – 975 A.D.)

The Rashtrakutas were of Kannada origin and Kannada language was their mother tongue. Dantidurga was the founder of the Rashtrakuta dynasty. He defeated the Gurjaras and captured Malwa from them. Then he annexed the Chalukya kingdom by defeating Kirtivarman II. Thus, the Rashtrakutas become a paramount power in the Deccan. His successor Krishna I was also a great conqueror. He defeated the Ganges and the eastern Chalukyas of Vengi. He built the magnificent rock-cut monolithic Kailasa temple at Ellora. The next important king of this dynasty was Govinda III. He achieved victories over north Indian kingdoms.

His successor Amoghavarsha I (815- 880 A.D.) ruled for a long period of 64 years. He had lost control over Malwa and Gangavadi. Yet, his reign was popular for cultural development. He was a follower of Jainism. Jinasena was his chief preceptor. He was also a patron of letters and he himself wrote the famous Kannada work, Kavirajamarga. He had also built the Rashtrakuta capital, the city of Malkhed or Manyakheda.

Among the successors of Amoghavarsha I, Krishna III (936- 968 A.D.) was famous for his expeditions. He marched against the Cholas and defeated them at Takkolam. He marched further south and captured Tanjore. He went as far as Rameswaram and occupied it for some time. He built several temples in the conquered territories including the Krishneswara temple at Rameswaram. Throughout his reign he possessed the Tondaimandalam region including the capital Kanchi. After his death, the power of the Rashtrakutas declined.

Administration

The Rashtrakuta Empire was divided into several provinces called rashtras under the control of rashtrapati. They were further divided into vishayas or districts governed by vishayapatis. The next subdivision was bhukti consisting of 50 to 70 villages under the control of bhogapathi. These officers were directly appointed by the central government. The village administration was carried on by the village headmen. However, the village assemblies played a significant role in the village administration.

Society and Economy

The Hindu sects of Vaishnavism and Shaivism flourished during the period of Rashtrakutas. Yet, they did not affect the progress of Jainism under the patronage of Rashtrakuta kings and officers. Almost one third of the population of the Deccan were Jains. There were some prosperous Buddhist settlements at places like Kanheri, Sholapur and Dharwar. There was harmony among various religions. There was a college at Saratoga, situated in modern Bijapur district. An inscription gives details of this educational centre. It was run by the income from the endowments made by the rich as well as by all the villagers on occasions of functions and festivals. The economy was also in a flourishing condition. There was an active commerce between the Deccan and the Arabs. The Rashtrakuta kings promoted the Arab trade by maintaining friendship with them.

Cultural Contributions

The Rashtrakutas widely patronized the Sanskrit literature. There were many scholars in the Rashtrakuta court. Trivikrama wrote Nalachampu and the Kavirahasya was composed by Halayudha during the reign of Krishna III. The Jain literature flourished under the patronage of the Rashtrakutas. Amoghavarsha I, who was a Jain patronized many Jain scholars. His teacher Jinasena composed Parsvabhudaya, a biography of Parsva in verses.

Another scholar unabhadra wrote he Adipurana, the life stories of various Jain saints. Sakatayana wrote the grammer work called Amogavritti. The great mathematician of this period, Viracharya was the author of Ganitasaram. The Kannada literature saw its beginning during the period of the Rashtrakutas. Amoghavarsha Kavirajamarga was the first poetic work in Kannada language. Pampa was the greatest of the Kannada poets. His famous work was Vikramasenavijaya. Ponna was another famous Kannada poet and he wrote Santipurana.

Art and Architecture

The art and architecture of the Rashtrakutas were found at Ellora and Elephanta. At Ellora, the most remarkable temple is the Kailasa temple. It was excavated during the reign of Krishna I. It is carved out of a massive block of rock 200 feet long, and 100 feet in breadth and height. The temple consists of four parts – the main shrine, the entrance gateway, an intermediate shrine for Nandi and mandapa surrounding the courtyard.

The temple stands on a lofty plinth 25 feet high. The central face of the plinth has imposing figures of elephants and lions giving the impression that the entire structure rests on their back. It has a three-tiered sikhara or tower resembling the sikhara of the Mamallapuram rathas. In the interior of the temple there is a pillared hall which has sixteen square pillars.

The Kailasa temple is an architectural marvel with its beautiful sculptures. The sculpture of the Goddess Durga is shown as slaying the Buffalo demon. In another sculpture Ravana was making attempts to lift Mount Kailasa, the abode of Siva. The scenes of Ramayana were also depicted on the walls. The general characteristics of the Kailasa temple are more Dravidian. Elephanta is an island near Bombay. It was originally called Sripuri. The Portuguese after seeing the large figure of an elephant named it Elephanta. The sculptural art of the Rashtrakutas reached its zenith in this place. There is a close similarity between the sculptures at Ellora and those in Elephanta. They might have been carved by the same craftsmen. At the entrance to the sanctum there are huge figures of dwara-palakas.

In the walls of the prakara around the sanctum there are niches containing the images of Shiva in various forms – Nataraja, Gangadhara, Ardhanareeswara and Somaskanda. The most imposing figure of this temple is Trimurthi. The sculpture is six metre high. It is said to represent the three aspects of Shiva as Creator, Preserver and Destroyer.


Pallava Dynasty Administration

Kingship was hereditary and, on some occasions, the king was being elected. Since Pallavas had a vast empire ranging from Nellore in the North to South Pennar River in the south a planned administration was required. Most of the kings were scholars and had good knowledge about the administration. Mostly the rulers of Pallavas followed the Mauryan system of administration.

The council of ministers consisted of officials variously called Matras, Mantris, etc. The king, however, was the supreme judicial authority. There were many servants in the king’s palace who held office hereditarily. The goldsmith and the minor poets in the court held such offices. The army consisted of the land army as well as the navy and the mode of fighting did not seriously differ from that of the earlier period. Salt manufacture was a monopoly of the state. Toddy tappers, the cattle breeders, the priestly community, the potters, the goldsmiths, textile dealers, weavers, oil mongers, brokers, dealers in milk products, armament makers, owners of public places, etc., were all taxed independently.

Hieun Tsang visited the Pallava Kingdom also. He says that the people were honest and followed Hinduism and Buddhism. They were also Jains. Mahendra Varman himself was a Jain before he started worshipping Lord Shiva. Thereafter, All the Pallavas kings worshipped either Lord Shiva and Lord Vishnu and believed in Hinduism. But, they practiced tolerance towards other religions. The Pallava capital, Kanchi was a city of temples and Vedic learning. The Pallavas proved to be pretty generous rulers. Numerous villages were granted free of taxes to the Brahmanas by them. The Pallavas also found their colonies in Sumatra, which is present-day Indonesia, in the initial centuries of the Christian era.

Want to know more about the glorious past and Royal rule of the Pallavas. The Pallavas portrays every inch of the empire beautifully and unveils many facts and mysteries which were veiled for a long time. The Pallavas by G. Jouveau Dubreuil is really a beautiful depiction of The Royal history of The Pallavas.


Pallava Sculpture and Architecture

Pallavas sculpture have a lot of passion and we can see slender skills of the artists in the carving of the sculptures. Pallava dynasty was a famous dynasty in South India. The Pallava kings played a patron role to flourish art and architecture in their kingdom. The present Pallava art and sculptures are dated back to the 610 AD to 690 AD. Probably the rock cut caves also came into existence during the period of Pallavas. The kings of Pallavas encouraged the artists to construct the temples and replaced the old temples with innovative rock sculptures and architecture.

Pallavas and Their Style of Sculptures:

During the rule of Pallavas, the artists improved their skills of excavating temples from the rocks. There were special institutions to teach the techniques of carving the architecture. They brought the Dravidian style of art and introduced in the temple construction. The development of temple and architecture changed from one king to another. They brought the cave based constructing temples to structural temples. The Pallavas constructed many monuments around the temples. According to the Historians, the temple construction styles changed in four stages.

The great Mahendravarma I encouraged the rock cut temples, we can see them at Mahendravadi, Mamandur, Dalavanm, Vallan and some other places in Tamilnadu. We can see the second stage of Pallava style of temples at Mamallapuram. Here the temple’s architecture constructed by Monolithic rathas and Mandapas. Narasimhavarman constructed the temples with magnificent architectural monuments. The mandapas in the temples had the decorations with stunning sculptures, which were narrating the stories of Hindu epics.

Rock Cut Temples to Structural Temples:

Kanchipuram temples Muktheeswara, Matagenswara, and Vaikundaperumal temples belonged to the style of Pallava architecture. At the beginning of the Pallava dynasty the rock architecture in peak stage. The Pallavas encouraged structural temples. The Pallava king Mahendravarman I involved in the evolution of rock cut structural temples like Kailasanatha temple in Kanchipuram. During the 6th and 9th century most of the temples in Tamilnadu constructed in the style of Pallava architecture.


Unique Architecture of Vaikuntha Perumal Temple

There are few architectural and design elements that make this temple very different and special. Let me share some of them with you:

3 Tier Sanctum

This temple has 3 sanctums on three floors. Yes, you heard it right. Unlike a single sanctum in most temples, this one has three one on top of the other. 3 sanctums have 3 Vishnu images in 3 different poses.

Sanctum on the ground floor has Vishnu in a sitting position. There is a small mandapam in front of the Murti supported by the lion face pillars. The Vishnu Murti is large, almost overwhelms you with its size. It is believed that Vishnu advises the king in this sitting posture as Acharya.

The Murti on the first floor has the Vishnu is in lying pose known as Sheshashayee Vishnu, as he sleeps in the Kshirsagar. This murti rests in a rather smaller room with plain walls. In this pose, King serves Vishnu as a disciple would serve his Guru.

You can approach this middle floor through the staircase that goes around the temple. The catch is this floor is opened only on Ekadashi or the 11th of every fortnight of lunar calendar followed in India. I was there the next day and had to really request the priest to open it for me. He made me wait for 3 hours before opening it for less than a minute and after taking a promise that no photographs would be clicked.

Second Floor

Second floor used to have a Vishnu Murti (some say Krishna) in standing pose. The image has been stolen and no one knows where it is at the moment. So, this floor is closed and inaccessible. In this standing posture, it is believed Vishnu taught the king as many as 18 different art forms.

The architecture of the three floors is such that you can do circumambulation at each level & the staircase is not visible from anywhere in the temple complex.

3 floors, 3 Vishnu Murtis in 3 different poses – sitting, sleeping and standing. I am not sure if the order has any significance, but I found this architecture quite unique.

The staircase from behind the ground floor sanctum opens up a huge sculpture of Vishnu in sitting posture. It is probably the best-maintained sculpture in the temple complex.

Moat Around the Temple

The plinth of the main temple or sanctum sits below the level where you enter the temple. Or you can think of a moat separating the pillared corridor that runs around the temple and the platform on which the temple stands.

You naturally wonder how would the temple look when rains would fill up this area. I remember visiting Airateshwara Temple in Darasuram when it was full of water. The temple reflecting in the waters was a stunning scene. Though, here, space is limited to see the full reflection of the temple.

I found this feature quite unique in this temple. I am yet to understand if there is a practical reason to build the moat around the temple.

Walls with Stories

The walls of corridors surrounding the sanctum are full of stories. Now, most Hindu Temples have sculptures carved all around them. What makes this temple special is the fact that panels on the left walls depict the stories of Vishnu, whose home this temple is. On the other hand, stories of right wall depict the parallel stories from the life of King Nandivarman who is credited with building this temple.

This juxtaposition of parallels between the stories of Vishnu and the King makes these sculptures interesting.

24 sculpted panels tell the Krishna Katha. There are Ganga & Yamuna on walls. Some interesting stories include the inclusion of a temple architecture on the walls, of traders from far and wide indicating the trade connections of Kanchipuram in good old days.

Sculptures are not in great shape. It does not look like they faced any vandalism, but the stone has started eroding with time. I hope some kind of conservation can be taken up to preserve these stories.

Lion Pillars of Pallavas

Tapering pillars with their base carved in the shape of a sitting lion are the hallmark of Pallava architecture in Tamil Nadu. You see them almost everywhere in Kanchipuram too, for it was the capital of Pallavas for a long time.

At this temple, these pillars in a neat clean row, stand out. Like I said before, standing in front of the sculpted walls, they look like guarding the stories. The visual they present is stunning. As this temple is not really crowded, you do get to see them without anyone blocking the view.

You would notice different colors of different pillars from pale sandstone to a dark granite color. Even the stylistic details are different in pillars of different colors. This is because the pillars were restored during the Vijayanagara empire that much later ruled Kanchipuram. So, in a way, this tells you the history of temple restoration and gives you the imprint of each dynasty that contributed.

108 Divya Desam Temple

This temple is one of the 108 Vishnu temples that collectively make 108 Divya Desams. The followers of Vishnu make it a point to visit all of them in their lifetime. Kanchipuram alone has 14 of these 108 temples.

History of Vaikuntha Perumal Temple

This temple is the second oldest temple in Kanchipuram after Kailasanathar Temple. It was built by Pallava King Nandivarman II in late 7th CE or early 8th CE and later maintained by the ruling Cholas and Vijayanagara kings. This makes it one of the earliest stone temples with Dravidian architecture. It would inspire the later temples in the region.

During Nandivarman II’s time, the temple was called Parmeshwara Vishnugriham, after the original name of the king Parmeshwara. It later came to be known as Vaikuntha Perumal Temple. Perumal is the name used for Vishnu in Tamil country.

Vishnu here is known as Vaikunthnathan. He lives here with his consort Vaikunthavalli.

Temple tank is called Airammadha Teertham.

Temple Legend

After I had admired the temple enough, I had this question – why was this beautiful Vishnu temple built in Shiva Kanchi when there is whole Vishnu Kanchi in Kanchipuram. Out, comes the story that explains it all.

The story says that King Viroacha who ruled from here was childless. He prayed to Shiva seeking the blessing of progeny. Shiva blessed him that Dwarpalas of Vishnu will be born to him as sons. In time he was blessed by two sons. They grew up as great Vishnu devotees and Vishnu lives here as Vaikunthnathan. Vaikuntha, as you know, is Vishnu’s Dham or heaven or home, as you like to perceive it.

To me, this legend brings the two main sects of Hinduism – Shaivas, and Vaishnavas together as followers of deities who respect each other and co-exist peacefully.

Vaikuntha Perumal Temple Festivals

Every Ekadashi, i.e. the 11th of every lunar month, a day associated with Vishnu is celebrated in the temple. Vaikuntha Ekadashi is a big festival apart from Ram Navmi and Krishna Janamasthmi.

As per D Dennis Hudson in his book on Vaikuntha Perumal Temple, the Murti in the middle floor is worshipped in 12 different forms of Vishnu –

  1. Keshava
  2. Narayana
  3. Madhava
  4. Govinda
  5. Vishnu
  6. Madhusudan
  7. Trivikram
  8. Vamana
  9. Sridhara
  10. Hrishikesh
  11. Padmanabha
  12. Damodara

Each form is worshipped for a lunar month beginning with the 10th of each month.

Unlike Varadaraja Perumal Temple in Vishnu Kanchi, this temple is visited by very few people. That lets you appreciate the nuances of the temple architecture. However, you find that buzz and energy missing that comes from the prayers of the devotees.


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